It was discovered that the moment the human body hits water
- a. The facial nerve receptors trigger an immediate response
- b. The pulse rate drops depending upon the competence of the person in diving
- c. Pulse rates drop by 50 percent if the person is an experienced diver
- d. The blood vessels in the heart stretch and widen
- e. Blood is blocked from reaching crucial locations in the body
- Answer: ABD
- Explaination: The correct answers are A, B and D The end of the passage clearly brings out what had been discovered in respect of the human body’s reaction when it hits water. A has been clearly brought out and hence, it is correct. The drop in pulse rates has been brought out to be different for novice divers and the professional divers. Therefore, B is correct. C is clearly incorrect as a novice diver is not experienced at all. D is correct as it has been brought out that the blood vessels in the heart dilate. E is incorrect as it has been brought out that blood is shunted to the places that count; in other words, blood reached the crucial body locations. Therefore, A, B and D are the correct answers.
Which of the following is a result of anxiety?
- a. Relaxation
- b. Diving underwater on a single breath
- c. Constriction of blood vessels
- d. Release of adrenaline
- e. Fall in heart rate
- Answer: CD
- Explaination: The correct answers are C and D The beginning of the passage brings out that the author is faced with the task of diving down 55 feet underwater in a single breath and this is causing him anxiety. Diving underwater on a single breath is not the result of this anxiety; rather it is the reason that is generating this anxiety. Therefore, A and B are both incorrect. C and D have been brought out as the results of anxiety and so they are both correct. It is mentioned that the heart rate jacks up as a result of anxiety. This means that the heart rate is increasing and not decreasing. Therefore, E is incorrect. In view of the above, C and D are the correct answers.
According to the author, the advantages of relaxed free diving encompass
- a. Floating face down in a swimming pool
- b. Probing the underwater world without the unwanted load of oxygen tanks
- c. Diving more than 500 feet
- d. Improving one’s physical endurance
- e. Using a mask and fins for diving
- Answer: BD
- Explaination: The correct answers are B and D The question is related to the advantages that are offered by free diving if one carries it out in a relaxed manner and not free diving as a technique. Options A, C and E are merely referring to different aspects of the technique of free diving. They are not referring to the advantages offered by such a form of diving. Therefore, options A, C and E are all incorrect. B and D have been clearly brought out as the advantages of free diving as a sport when it is executed in a relaxed manner. Therefore, B and D are the correct answers.
Which of the following do NOT fall into any category of free divers?
- a. Static apnea
- b. Diving using only a mask and fins
- c. Floating in a swimming pool
- d. Diving without an air tank
- e. Diving with an air tank
- Answer: CE
- Explaination: The correct answers are C and E Free diving means diving deep underwater without an air tank. This implies that E is correct as diving with an air tank cannot be termed a form of free diving at all. Static apnea is the form of free diving wherein one stays in water for as long as one’s lungs can endure to go without air. Simply floating in the swimming pool as indicated in option C cannot be termed as free diving because it does not specify whether the face is in the water or whether one is floating on one’s back in which case, it would not amount to any form of free diving at all. In view of the ambiguity involved, it can be said that C is correct. All the other options refer to some or the other form of free diving and hence, C and E are the correct answers.
Which of the following conclusions based on the contents of the passage are justified?
- a. The author is a free diver belonging to the constant ballast category
- b. The author is a free diver of the static apnea category
- c. Free divers train themselves to dive without any limits
- d. Feeling fear and angst is not normal for free divers
- e. The author does not have any snorkelling skills
- Answer: AD
- Explaination: The correct answers are A and D It has been clearly brought out that the author belongs to the constant ballast category and he wishes to test his apnea limits. This does not mean that he belongs to the static apnea category as well and moreover, it has not been implied anywhere in the passage. Therefore, A is correct and B is incorrect. C is clearly incorrect as it has been specifically mentioned that free divers can dive as far as their lungs permit them to. D is correct as it has been brought out in the beginning of the passage that anxiety is a wrong response for free divers. E is incorrect as the author clearly mentions that he wishes to hone his snorkelling skills. This means that he already possesses the skills and he wants to sharpen these skills. Therefore, A and D are the correct answers.
According to the author, shallow-water blackout is a danger of free diving that is highly
- a. Confounding
- b. Agitating
- c. Whimsical
- d. Baffling
- e. Reposing
- Answer: ABD
- Explaination: The correct answers are A, B and D It has been brought out by the author that among all the dangers of free diving shallow-water blackout is the most disconcerting. Confounding, agitating and baffling carry the same meanings as disconcerting, but whimsical and reposing carry entirely different meanings. This implies that A, B and D are the correct answers.
Which of the following is true in respect of the effect of water pressure on humans?
- a. Scientists believed that the chest cavity would blow up at a depth of about 115 feet
- b. Rib cages will collapse at the water pressure of 65 pounds per square inch
- c. Blood vessels of the chest enlarge and fill the empty space left by lungs that have been compressed
- d. It is now known that lungs will not shrink with increase in water pressure
- e. It is no longer believed that the chest cavity will cave in at a depth of about 115 feet
- Answer: CE
- Explaination: The correct answers are C and E. The beginning of the passage clearly brings out that the initial theory which was believed by the scientists was refuted in the 1950's and early 1960's. This implies that B is incorrect. Also, it was believed that the chest cavity would implode at a depth of about 115 feet. Implode means to collapse inward or cave in and not blow outwards. Therefore, A is incorrect and E is correct. It is now known that blood vessels swell to occupy the void left by the lungs. This implies that the lungs shrink with increase in water pressure. Therefore, C is correct and D is incorrect. In view of the above, C and E are the correct answers.
When a free diver is coming up towards the surface of the water
- a. The breathing stops just before the surface is reached
- b. Oxygen from the lungs is dispelled
- c. Water pressure squeezes the lungs
- d. The throat automatically tightens to keep out water for a minute if the oxygen levels drop very low
- e. Oxygen is condensed and stored by the lungs
- Answer: BD
- Explaination: The correct answers are B and D. During the free diver’s descent, that is when the diver is moving towards the bottom of the water body, water pressure squeezes the lungs and condenses the oxygen. This does not happen during ascent which would be when the diver is coming towards the surface of the water. Therefore, C and E are incorrect. A is clearly incorrect because the diver is holding his breath for the entire duration that he is underwater and not just when he is close to the surface. B and D refer to the actions that take place as the diver approaches the surface of the water and hence, B and D are the correct answers.
The author attributes the feeling of goodness while sinking to the bottom to
- a. Johnston, who is waiting for him to come up
- b. The condensed oxygen in his lungs
- c. The closely packed oxygen molecules in his lungs
- d. The dissipated oxygen molecules in his lungs
- e. The laryngospasm reflex
- Answer: BC
- Explaination: The correct answers are B and C The author mentions that he feels surprisingly good as he descends to the bottom and he gives the credit for this feeling to the densely packed oxygen molecules in his lungs. Dissipated oxygen molecules mean exactly the opposite of being densely packed and therefore, B and C are correct, but D is incorrect. The laryngospasm reflex is supposed to kick in when the diver is ascending and it does not make the diver feel good in any way whatsoever. A is clearly incorrect as the author makes a reference to Johnston waiting for him to come up to elucidate the fact that he can rely on Johnston to drag him to the surface if required. In view of the above, it is evident that A and E are incorrect and B and C are the correct answers.
Which of the following conclusions based on the given passage are justified?
- a. The author feels he could have easily dived 110 feet with some more practice
- b. Divers can always rely on the laryngospasm reflex to save them when they run out on oxygen
- c. The laryngospasm reflex cannot save a diver if he is well below the surface of the water
- d. The limit to which humans can dive freely has not yet been confirmed
- e. During ascent, a diver experiences a second breath which is a result of condensed oxygen in the lungs
- Answer: ACD
- Explaination: The correct answers are A, C and D The passage ends on the note that we are not yet aware of the limit to which humans can dive freely. Moreover, the author mentions that with a little practice, he can dive to a depth of twice of 55 feet. Therefore, A and D are correct. The laryngospasm reflex kicks in when the diver’s oxygen levels fall too low. This reflex can keep the water out of the throat for only a minute. If the diver is close to the surface, then only can he be pulled to safety. Therefore, B is incorrect and C is correct. E is clearly incorrect as the diver has condensed oxygen in his lungs during descent and not during ascent. Therefore, A, C and D are the correct answers.
Which of the following is NOT related to the tantrik approach to life?
- a. Attainment of one’s desires
- b. Maintaining one’s spiritual beliefs alongside worldly prosperity
- c. Meditation for attaining supernatural powers
- d. Evade materialistic gains
- e. Ignoring and shunning one’s desires
- Answer: DE
- Explaination: The correct answers are D and E. The beginning of the passage clearly outlines the tantric philosophy as one that allows people to enjoy worldly pleasures and seek spiritual attainment at the same time. This implies that A and B are both related to the tantric approach to life and hence, both A and B are incorrect answer options to the question asked. However, E is not related to the tantric approach in life and hence, it is a correct answer option. The passage clearly brings out that the meditation procedures followed as part of the tantric approach to life can lead to attaining supernatural powers and hence, C is related to the tantric approach to life. Therefore, C is an incorrect answer option. As tantric philosophy advocates enjoying worldly pleasures, D is clearly not related to the tantric approach to life. This implies that D and E are the correct answer options.
The tantra philosophy advocates
- a. Following the path of nature for spiritual and materialistic fulfilment
- b. Avoiding an amalgamation of worldly pleasures with spiritual aspirations
- c. Avoiding the path that leads to guilt arising from desiring materialistic pleasures
- d. Avoiding natural way of living
- e. Following a path that builds will power for overcoming worldly desires
- Answer: AC
- Explaination: The correct answers are A and C. A careful reading of the passage makes it aptly clear that tantric philosophy advocates following the path of nature and living life as nature has planned it for us. This includes enjoying worldly pleasures and attaining spiritual fulfilment. This makes it obvious that B, D and E are incorrect and A and C are the correct answers.
Which of the following substantiate the claim, “Tantra offers an alternative path”?
- a. “Tantra is different from other traditions because it takes the whole person, and his worldly desires into account”
- b. “Although most people are drawn into spiritual beliefs and practices, they have a natural urge to fulfill their desires”
- c. “When we are born, life naturally forms itself around that pattern”
- d. “The tantrik approach to life avoids this pitfall”
- e. “These powers may be used for good or for bad purposes”
- Answer: AD
- Explaination: The correct answers are A and D. The author uses the statement in question to bring out that tantra offers an alternative method for achieving full satisfaction from life. Option A refers to the fact that tantra is different from other spiritual traditions with respect to the principles it follows. Therefore, A implies that tantra offers an alternative path for complete satisfaction from life. D also indicates that tantra is offering an alternative path for avoiding the pitfall. Hence, A and D are correct. B, C and E refer to statements that do not substantiate the claim in question in any way whatsoever. Hence, B, C and E are all incorrect and A and D are the correct answers.
Which of the following best describes the relation between S1 – “teach that desire for material pleasures and spiritual aspirations are mutually exclusive” S2 – “fall prey to guilt and self-condemnation”
- a. S1 and S2 are not related
- b. S1 is the evidence that justifies S2
- c. S2 is the evidence that justifies S1
- d. S1 refutes S2
- e. S2 can be concluded on the basis of S1
- Answer: BE
- Explaination: The correct answers are B and E. It is implied that people fall prey to guilt because they are unable to give up worldly pleasures or are still attracted to them when they are expected to give them up on their path to attaining spiritual fulfilment. Hence, it is evident that S2 is the outcome of S1 and therefore, B and E are correct. This implies that A, C and D are incorrect and B and E are the correct answers.
Which of the following conclusions based on the contents of the passage are justified?
- a. Renouncing materialistic pleasures sooner or later affects mental satisfaction even if one is on the path to attain spiritual fulfilment
- b. Following spiritual beliefs precludes enjoying worldly pleasures in the tantric way of life
- c. Tantrasadhana has a scientific aspect too which needs to be understood and mastered in order to utilize the tantra principles to their utmost potential
- d. Renouncing materialistic pleasures does not affect mental satisfaction if one decides to take the path to attain spiritual fulfilment
- e. Tantrasadhana is completely subjective with no scientific claims or procedures
- Answer: AC
- Explaination: The correct answers are A and C. The contents of the passage make it aptly clear that the conclusion at A is justified. Hence, A is correct and D is incorrect. The term, ‘preclude’ is used to define two events that cannot coexist. This implies that B is clearly incorrect as it goes against the basic principle of tantric philosophy. The end of the passage brings out that there are many scientific practices that are involved in the tantric philosophy and the correct usage of these practices can lead to attainment of supernatural powers. Hence, C is correct and E is incorrect. Therefore, A and C are the correct answers.