Critical Reasoning Practice Test 4
Sam – I think there should be some way to get out of this trouble. We sure can manage to get the money from somewhere. Like say we can work overtime or start some business. We will have to think hard, I am sure we can handle the situation if we can think of some source of earning money. Samant – There is no way. There is nothing we can do about it. Even if we work overtime we shall not be able to make enough money in two months. We should not waste time in thinking about how we can earn the money. Instead we should some other means of getting it. What is a reader most likely to conclude about the qualities of the two after reading the above conversation?
- A. Sam has a positive attitude whereas Samant doesn’t
- B. Sam is a dreamer and Samant is practical
- C. They both are caught up in a big financial problem
- D. Sam believes in his abilities to get over the problem
- E. Samant tries to dominate Sam by discouraging him
- Answer: B
EXPLANATION:We can not say that Samant has a negative outlook as he too hopes to find some other way of handling the situation. Hence A is wrong. C does not mention the qualities of the two. It tells about their situation. Hence we reject it. D does not tell the qualities of both of them. It only talks about Sam and hence is an incomplete option. Out of B and E we can say that B is a more likely conclusion of the reader. Samant seems to be more practical as he tells Sam that they cannot raise enough money by working more. He then says that they should think of some other alternative, clearly meaning that they should look for a more possible way of handling the problem. B is the best answer option.
With the ban on laptops, Bluetooth, infrared and pen drives in government organizations, many corporate offices are also pulling up their socks to ensure a similar rule. Despite the fact that most employees are made to sign secrecy bonds, people often download information to take home to work on. Although it is monitored the employers can never be 100 per cent sure that it is not misused. As a result many banks, consultancies and back offices have banned the use of personal laptops in the offices. Which of the following best criticizes the steps being taken by the corporate offices?
- A. If a person has to steal or misuse information he can find many ways of doing it
- B. People hardly use personal laptops in offices
- C. Only 5% of such crimes are committed using laptops
- D. Blue tooth should be banned instead of laptops
- E. The laptops issued by the companies are also used for the purpose.
- Answer: C
EXPLANATION:Clearly A and D are not strong points of criticism of the ban on laptops. Where A is a general statement D is without a reason. Hence we reject both of these. Out of B, C and E we can say that C is the best criticism of the ban on personal laptops. It tells that since only five percent of these crimes are committed using laptops the ban would not help the situation much. Moreover out of the 5% an even lesser percent of crimes must be committed using personal laptops. Hence banning personal laptops would not help. Also, B and E are not supported with concrete data like in C. Hence we can say that C is the best answer option.
A recent study reveals that men prefer women who are compatible with them rather than women younger than them. The study suggests that 87% unmarried men feel that they would prefer to marry a girl who is compatible even if she is older than them. Which of the following most significantly weakens the claims of the study?
- A. The study was conducted on a small group of men
- B. The conclusion was based on a set of indirect questions which have been wrongly interpreted and stated
- C. The study was conducted in only a few metro cities
- D. Only college going boys were asked the question most of whom were not of marriageable age
- E. The study was conducted in cities only and the opinions of men in small towns and villages were not taken
- Answer: B
EXPLANATION:Of all the above we have to choose the most significant factor. A and C are not well supported with any data. The number of men is not mentioned; similarly the number of metro cities is not mentioned. The terms ‘few’ and ‘small group’ are relative and hence we reject A and C. Out of B, C and D we can say that B is the most significant point. The final result of the study is wrongly interpreted and that is the most important point. Even if the study was conducted in metro cities only or on college going boys the result could have been stated in a suitable manner to give the correct picture. But the fact that the conclusion was wrongly interpreted and stated holds more value. B is the best answer option.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have revealed key changes in the brain's grey matter in a small group before they developed symptoms. The finding suggests tracking these changes over time, combined with traditional assessments, could help doctors to predict illness. The research, published in BioMed Central Medicine, was carried out by the University of Edinburgh. For ten years, scientists followed 200 young people who were at a high risk of developing schizophrenia because two or more members of their family had already been diagnosed with the illness. They analyzed MRI scans of 65 of the 200 young people, taken on average 18 months apart. The researchers looked specifically for changes in grey matter. Eight of the 65 went on to develop schizophrenia on average 2.3 years after their first scan. What was the conclusion of the research?
- A. MRI scans can predict mental illness
- B. Schizophrenia can be predicted by an MRI scan
- C. Schizophrenia is likely to occur in people whose family has a history of cases of the disease
- D. On an average people develop schizophrenia 2-3 years after its symptoms appear.
- E. A person whose family members are suffering from schizophrenia is highly likely to get the disease himself
- Answer: A
EXPLANATION:Clearly D is not a valid conclusion of the paragraph. Hence we reject it. The study aimed at finding a relation between schizophrenia and MRI scans. It was not conducted to find out who was most likely to suffer from the disease. As mentioned in the first few sentences it aimed at finding if mental illness can be predicted before symptoms appear. Hence we reject C and E. On similar lines we can say that the study was not conducted to see how schizophrenia can be predicted, like B suggests. Hence we reject B. A is the correct conclusion of the research.
The colours used in the house of Rita Ramit are very subdued. The look of the house is very minimal. The walls are mostly plain with earthy colours like beige and crème. Even the furniture is simple. What will attract your attention is that the windows are larger than usual and she claims to keep them mostly wide open. What can one best interpret about Rita Ramit on the basis of the above paragraph?
- A. She does not like dark colours on walls
- B. She loves nature
- C. She is a quiet nature loving person
- D. She is simple and loves nature
- E. She is simple and sober
- Answer: D
EXPLANATION:Clearly A and B aren’t the best inferences. Earthy colours need not be light and we can hence reject A. Also B is an incomplete inference about her. Out of C, D and E we can say that D is the best inference. Clearly we know that she loves nature. This is not mentioned is E. Also we can say that since her house is not decorated much, she must be a simple girl. But we can not say that she is quiet. No feature of her house tells us that. She could be simple and yet talkative. Hence we can say that D is the best answer option.
China is to auction licences for foreigners to hunt wild animals, including endangered species, according to local media. The auction will offer the right to hunt yaks, wolves and other wild animals in five western provinces. The price of a licence will depend on the type and number of animals to be hunted. A licence to hunt a wolf could cost about $200, while permission to shoot a yak could be as much as $40,000. The wolf is the only carnivore on the list that could be hunted.Which of the following is strongest criticism of the above?
- A. It will also lead to illegal killings of animals which are not on the list
- B. The country will get negative responses from other countries
- C. It would agitate the wild life protection groups all over the world
- D. Endangered species could be the most hunted
- E. It would require strict checks on the hunters to stick to the rules
- Answer: C
EXPLANATION:There is no reason for the statement D. It is a baseless statement and hence we reject it. Out of the remaining four options we have to choose the strongest point. Since this auction of licences is for foreigners it would affect the whole world, every country would react to the idea. The reactions of other countries would hold more importance than other related issues within China. Hence we consider only B and C. Out of these two it is the response of wild life protection groups that would be more important. With the increase in awareness and consciousness of people towards protection of wild life, it is obvious that many such groups would strongly react to the proposal. C is the best answer .
Good Heavens is a book of one-act plays, with a very detailed introduction to the stage. Poile Sengupta explains the concept of royalty and permission to reproduce or stage someone else’s work. She has included thoughtful details like telling her readers to take water and snacks with them as rehearsals can be long drawn out and laborious. The book design and layout is also remarkable. It depicts a scene where actors are rehearsing for a play. Each of seven plays focuses on a different aspect of theatre. This book will give aspiring actors a push in the right direction, and encourage writers to try their hand at scripts.Which of the following is most remarkable feature of the book?
- A. The introduction to stage is very good
- B. The concept of royalty and permission to reproduce someone’s work is an eye opener
- C. Aspiring actors can learn a lot from it
- D. Small tips for actors and directors are handy
- E. The design and layout is remarkable
- Answer: B
EXPLANATION:E is a point of little importance. It could certainly not be the most remarkable feature of the book. Out of the other options, A and C are only helpful for a beginner. The book is not only for beginners. It is written for all who are interested in theatre. Hence we reject both. Out of B and D, we can say that B is more important. Since it points that the knowledge given is eye opening it means that people are neglecting this aspect. Hence this is the most remarkable aspect of the book.
A Chinese dog owner hugs her dog after enrolling her as “doctor dog” with Animals Asia Foundation (AAF), in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China. The AAF is recruiting candidates to act as doctor animals for the animal therapy programme where owners and their pets visit orphanages, hospitals and homes for the elderly. Currently over 300 “canine consultants” have been registered. The above paragraph best supports which of the following?
- A. Dogs can be used to treat patients
- B. Dogs are being used to give orphans, patients and people in old age homes company
- C. Dog owners are proudly enrolling their dogs with AAF
- D. Animals can help treat patients
- E. Animals are being enrolled for practicing animal therapy
- Answer: E
EXPLANATION:The paragraph does not only talk about how dogs are being used to treat patients. Hence we reject A. B is certainly a wrong statement. These animals are not being used to give company. They are being used for treating patients. Hence we reject B. The main idea behind the paragraph is not that owners are proud of the fact that their dogs are being enrolled. It is in stead giving us information about how animals are being used to help in treatments through AAF. Hence we reject C. Out of D and E, we can say that E is a better statement. The paragraph does not give knowledge about what animal therapy is, it points to the fact that animals are now being enrolled for the purpose. Hence we select E.
A young Dutch Architect has created a floating bed, which hovers above the ground through magnetic force and comes with a price tag of 1.2 million euros ($ 1.54 million). Janjaap took six years to develop the bed, which looks like a sleek black platform and can double as a dining table. Magnets built into the floor and into the bed itself repel each other, pushing the bed up into the air. Thin steel cables tether the bed in place.Which of the following is most suitable criticism of the above paragraph?
- A. Only a few can afford the bed
- B. The flooring will have to be especially done to use the bed
- C. The bed is no more than a novel invention
- D. The bed can not be moved from its place once it is fixed
- E. A very strong magnetic field will be required
- Answer: C
EXPLANATION:We can clearly see that all of the above points are very valid. But we have to choose the most suitable criticism. We can understand from the paragraph that the bed can not be bought by many people and is very difficult to install at any place since it requires a strong magnetic field. Because of these factors we can say that the bed is merely a new invention with no real purpose. Hence, C summarizes all the negative aspects of the invention. It even includes all the other points given. Hence C is the best answer.
Brazil issued a stamp this year to celebrate Africa Day. The stamp emphasizes African art, remarkable features of which are apparent in the Brazilian culture. The background is composed by the colours that appear in the flags of most African nations. The stamp also shows, in a stylized manner, the strongest features of the African culture – musical instruments, masks, handicrafts and adornments. What can a person best interpret about Africa on seeing the stamp?
- A. Africa is keen on displaying its cultural heritage.
- B. Music and creativity are an integral part of African culture
- C. African art and culture is very famous
- D. The African nations are in harmony with each other
- E. Africa has a rich and varied culture
- Answer: E
EXPLANATION:Clearly A is wrong. We can not say that the culture and art of Africa is very famous just by seeing the stamp. The stamp is no measure of how famous it is. Hence C is wrong. Since only the colours of the nations’ flags have been used we can not arrive at the conclusion that the nations are in harmony. Moreover the colours are in the background and a person is hardly likely to take notice of the fact that the background colours are related to flags. Hence we reject D. Out of B and E, we choose E. It is not only examples of music and creativity given on the stamp but a lot more. One can see adornment and masks which tell more about Africa. E on the other hand is a statement that sums it all. The main features of the culture are depicted on the stamp and one can infer how rich Africa’s culture is from the stamp. Hence E is the best answer.
Which one of the following is the weakest claim in the advertisement of Morning Walker, an electronic device which can be used as a substitute of walking?
- A. Morning Walker is one of the best ways to maintain physical and mental health.
- B. Using Morning Walker for 15 minutes is equal to 10000 steps of brisk walk and 8 km in terms of oxygen benefit
- C. It is compact, portable and easy to use.
- D. Morning Walker has been tested and certified by leading medical institutions.
- E. It can be used safely by people of all age groups.
- Answer: D
EXPLANATION:B, C and D are certainly strong claims. B and D are supported with data, hence making them more meaningful and convincing. Hence we reject them. Out of A and D we can say that D is the weakest claim. Since the statement claims that the product is certified, at least the names of a few such institutions should have been mentioned. Moreover A states that the morning walker is one of the best ways; it does not claim that the morning walker is the best way. Hence it is more convincing. Thus, D is the correct answer option.
Our idea is to make aged care homes a better place to live in. These facilities should not be viewed as a dumping ground. Senior citizens should live in dignity and people should be proud of being a part of it. The above paragraph best supports which of the following?
- A. Old age homes need a modification
- B. Old age homes are only for those who are not wanted in their families
- C. Senior citizens need to live in dignity
- D. People need to change their attitude towards aged care homes
- E. The author is willing to give old age homes a new look
- Answer: A
EXPLANATION:Clearly E is not a correct option. The statement B does not get any support from the paragraph. In fact the paragraph mentions that people view old age homes as dumping grounds for old members of family and this attitude needs to be changed. B on the other hand represents the view of people. Hence we reject it. All the others are correct. We have to choose the statement which gets best support from the paragraph. D refers to a change required in the attitude of people. The paragraph does not lay emphasis on this. It only mentions the point in the second sentence. Hence we reject D. Out of A and C we can say that A is the most suitable answer option. The main point in the paragraph is that old age homes need to be modified so that people change their attitude towards them, both the ones living there and outsiders. This point is given in A. A as the best option.