Reading Comprehension Select Many Practice Test 4
Passage for Questions 1 to 5
The task of creating learning space with qualities of openness, boundaries and hospitality can be approached at several levels. The most basic level is the physical arrangement of the classroom. Consider the traditional classroom setting with row upon row of chairs facing the lectern where learning space is confined to the narrow alley of attention between student and teacher. In this space, there is no community of truth, hospitality or room for students to relate to the thoughts of each other. Contrast it with the chairs placed in a circular arrangement creating an open space within which learners can interconnect. At another level, the teacher can create conceptual space – space with words in two ways. One is through assigned reading; the other is through lecturing. Assigned reading, not in the form of speed reading several hundred pages but contemplative reading, which opens, not fills our learning space. A teacher can also create a learning space by means of lectures. By providing critical information and a framework of interpretation, a lecturer can lay down boundaries within which learning occurs.
Which of the following conclusions based on the given passage is NOT justified?
- Contemplative reading does not crowd learning space
- Suitably arranging a classroom is the best method for creating an open learning space
- Boundaries for learning space can be defined in several ways
- Speed reading does not help in creating spaces in learning
- Contemplative reading crowds learning space
Correct Answer: B and E.
A The author clearly brings out that contemplative learning opens our learning space and does not fill it. This means that the conclusion mentioned at A is justified, but the one at E is not. Hence, A is the wrong answer to the question asked and E is the right answer to the question asked. The passage opens with the claim that learning space with different qualities can be created at different levels. Therefore, C is a justified conclusion and hence, it is an incorrect answer option. It has been clearly brought out that speed reading is not a good method for creating learning space and hence, D is justified. Therefore, D is an incorrect answer option. The passage does bring out that the seating arrangement in a classroom is one of the levels for creating learning space, but it is not indicated anywhere in the passage that it is the best method for creating open learning spaces. Therefore, the conclusion at B is not justified. Hence, B and E are the correct answers.
An open learning space can be created by
- a seating arrangement in which the students can view each other
- defining rules in a classroom
- the teacher depending upon how he teaches
- speed reading
Correct Answer: A and D.
A In the beginning of the passage, the author has highlighted the fact that a circular seating arrangement in which students can interact with each other creates open space for learning. Therefore, A is correct. Towards the end of the passage, it has been brought out that while speed reading crowds learning space, contemplative reading opens the same learning space. As the type of reading being done may or may not create an open learning space, B is incorrect as it does not specify the type of reading being referred to. In view of the above, it is evident that E is incorrect. C is clearly incorrect as it does not specify the kind of rules being referred to and also because there is no indication of rules anywhere in the passage. D is correct as the author has emphasised upon how a teacher can create openness in the learning space created by him. Therefore, A and D are the correct answers.
Traditional classroom seating arrangement with rows facing the lectern is unsuitable for creating an open learning space because
- there is very little space left between the rows
- the students cannot directly interact with each other
- the students can interact with the teacher alone
- the students are seated very close to the teacher
- it is not as good as a circular arrangement
Correct Answer: B and C.
A A and D are clearly incorrect as the author is not referring to physical space when he discusses the lack of space in the traditional seating arrangement in classrooms. The demerit of this seating arrangement is the inability to easily interact with other students as they all are facing the teacher. E is clearly incorrect as it does not specify why the seating arrangement in question is not better than a circular arrangement and moreover, there is no indication of why it is unsuitable for creating an open learning space. In view of the above, it is evident that B and C are the correct answers.
In the context in which it has been used, ‘contemplative reading’ nearly means
- introspective reading
- desultory reading
- reflective reading
- unfocused reading
- purposeless reading
Correct Answer: A and C.
A Contemplative reading refers to a form of reading in which the reader reads attentively and muses over what is being read. Introspective and reflective readings carry the same meaning. However, desultory refers to something that is aimless and unmethodical. The words, unfocused and purposeless do not carry the same meaning as contemplative. Therefore, B, D and E are incorrect and options A and C are the correct answers.
Which of the following is not a quality of learning space as outlined by the author?
- Physical arrangement of classroom
Correct Answer: C and D.
A The opening sentence of the passage brings out A, B and E as qualities of learning space as have been outlined by the author. Lectures and the physical arrangement of classrooms have been brought out as means for achieving a particular quality for the learning space. This implies that C and D do not refer to qualities of learning space; rather they refer to the means by which these qualities can be attained. Therefore, it is evident that C and D are the correct answers.
Passage for Questions 6 to 10
What the companies look for or should do so ideally is for a match between the deeper characteristics of the candidate and their own desired set. Psychological tests help in revealing these but are conducted only at the time of placements hence used as a selection tool. There is a need for the whole process to be done either at the entry level or at the stage where the candidate is about to choose his specialisation, at the end of first year perhaps. This will help not only in segmenting the number of students interested and oriented towards each area of specialisation but also gives a clear idea of where the candidate’s strength lies and where he can thrive. The motive in implementation should be developmental. The career development and planning tools will not only help students discover what kind of role or environment they would operate at maximum efficiency and satisfaction but also which specific function to take. The companies should also come abreast with what is the work culture, roles, etc it offers, thereby providing further details for an informed decision to be taken. This kind of information sharing from both parties will help in drastically increasing retention rates, reduce job losses on campuses and provide better role fits. If the B-Schools usher in such similar changes, the results can be very tangible and extremely beneficial to all concerned.
Which of the following best describes the results that are likely to be seen if B schools adopt the changes being suggested in the passage?
Correct Answer: C and E.
A The author clearly brings out in the last sentence of the passage that such results can be very tangible. The term tangible is used to describe something that is real, substantial or concrete and not imaginary or conceptual. Imperceptible and notional are synonyms for conceptual or imaginary. In view of the above, it is evident that C and E are the correct answers.
It can be concluded that psychological tests
- are used by companies to determine whether a prospective employee has the required qualities or not
- are being taken by students attending first year
- solve no purpose if they are taken at the time of placements
- should be conducted much before the placements
- are a sheer wastage of crucial time
Correct Answer: A and D.
A It has been brought out in the beginning of the passage that although psychological tests are conducted at the time of placements for selection purposes, there is a need to conduct them for the students at the entry stage so that the students are able to identify their skills and pick areas of specialization accordingly. Currently, the tests are not being conducted at the entry level at college and they are being utilized only for the purpose of screening candidates by companies. This implies that B, C and E are all incorrect and A and D are the correct answers.
The advantage of conducting psychological tests for students still attending college is that
- students will be able to identify their strengths
- companies will have well trained candidates to pick and choose from
- students will be able recognize the job profile that will suit them the best
- students will have ample time to prepare for the tests
- companies will have time to rethink their choice
Correct Answer: A and C.
A During the course of the passage, the author has stressed on the fact that conducting psychological tests while students are still attending college will help them to identify their strengths and choose their areas of specialization as well as jobs accordingly. Therefore, A and C are both correct. The conclusions mentioned at B, D and E cannot be derived from the contents of the passage as nowhere in the passage have these been mentioned or implied. Hence, B, D and E are all incorrect and A and C are the correct answers.
The content of the passage implies that B-schools
- currently do not conduct psychological test for the students at entry level
- need to give students an early opportunity to recognize their skill sets and take decisions regarding their careers accordingly
- do not conduct campus placements
- conduct psychological tests for candidates at the entry level
- train prospective candidates while they are still attending college
Correct Answer: A and B.
A It has been brought out that there is a need to conduct psychological tests at the entry level and hence, A is correct and D is incorrect. B is a result that will arise from conducting psychological tests at entry level and hence, B is also correct. C and E are clearly incorrect as they have not been implied by the author anywhere in the passage. In view of the above, A and B are the correct answers.
The author suggests that the companies should
- only look for those candidates who meet their criteria
- ignore their own requirements and choose candidates based on their characteristics
- select candidates whose basic characteristics meet the requirements of the company
- make a choice after exchanging vital information with the prospective candidates
- conduct psychological tests at the time of selection
Correct Answer: C and D.
A The passage begins on the note that the companies should ideally look for a match between the deeper characteristics of the candidate and the desired set of the company. This implies that C is correct and A and B are both incorrect. Towards the end of the passage, the author brings out that exchange of information related to the company and information pertaining to the candidate’s characteristics will be beneficial for both parties. Therefore, D is correct. In the beginning of the passage, it has been brought out that there is a need for the psychological tests to be conducted earlier than the selection stage. Therefore, E is incorrect. Hence, C and D are the correct answers.
Passage for Questions 11 to 15
The economic recession has hit America’s youth particularly hard. Nearly 4 million of the unemployed are young people 25 and under. Many of them are not teenagers who need a minimum-wage job to earn pocket money to spend on weekends. They’re young adults who need a job — and job skills — so that they can support themselves and, sometimes, their families. More than 5 million young people ages 16-24 are disconnected from employment and education and living in high-poverty communities in this country. Some of them are lucky. Some live in areas that have jobs and education programs that target youth and help them complete their education, learn job skills and find jobs that allow them to advance and earn a liveable wage. What about the ones who are not living in such areas? Will they be subjected to further despondency or will the education programs ultimately reach their locations too?
Which of the following inferences based on the passage is not justified?
- The rise in unemployment amongst youth in America is because of the economic recession
- The recession has proved to be lucky for some youth as they have been able to find jobs easily
- The youth are in need of employment as they are poor and need to support their families
- The problem of unemployment has been compounded as the unemployed youth are not teenagers but young adults
- Unemployment is independent of the kind of areas the youth are living in
Correct Answer: B and E.
A The entire passage deals with the problem of unemployment and how recession has worsened it further. Hence, A is justified as an inference and this makes it an incorrect answer to the question asked. The author clearly brings out that a large majority of the unemployed youth are not teenagers but young adults who need to support themselves and their families. The author stresses on the fact that unlike young adults, teenagers are looking for low-paying jobs as they just need some pocket money for weekend spending. Therefore, C and D are both justified and hence they are incorrect answer options. Towards the end of the passage, the author has clearly brought out that some people are lucky to be living in areas where they have been able to pick up jobs and hence, E is not justified and this makes it a correct answer option. The author has not emphasised on any link between the youth who have got jobs and the economic recession. He simply discusses the role played by the kind of areas people live in for helping them get jobs. Hence, based on the information provided in the passage, the conclusion at B is grossly unwarranted and therefore, B and E are the correct answers.
The passage provides information on each of the following EXCEPT
- Statistics regarding unemployed youth
- The relation between education programs and unemployment
- Reasons why youth need jobs
- Ways and means for surviving during recession
- The disadvantages of running education programs
Correct Answer: D and E.
A The author has presented an adequate number of statistics regarding unemployment and so the information at A is provided in the passage and hence it is an incorrect answer. Towards the end of the passage, the role of education programs in helping people to get jobs has been elucidated. Therefore, it can be seen that the information at B has been provided in the passage and hence, B is incorrect. The author dwells upon various reasons for which both teenagers as well as young adults need jobs. This implies that C is an incorrect answer. There is a mention of the fact that some people are lucky to be living in areas where it is possible to get jobs and where education programs are available to help and guide them, but the author has not discussed methods for finding jobs or for making ends meet during the economic recession. Moreover, there is no mention of the disadvantages of running education programs. Since the information at D and E has not been provided in the passage, D and E are the correct answers.
Which of the following functions is performed by the sentence, “Some live in areas … a liveable wage.”?
- It reinforces a claim made by the author earlier in the passage
- It contradicts the main idea of the passage
- It is a conclusion based on the contents of the passage
- It reinforces the statement, “Some of them are lucky”
- It contradicts the statement, “Some of them are lucky”
Correct Answer: A and D.
A The author mentions that some of the youth are lucky in the sense that they stay in such an area which has job opportunities and education programs. These education programs help youth to complete their studies and hone their skills that are likely to get them good jobs. The sentence in question reinforces the fact mentioned in the preceding sentence, ‘Some of them are lucky.’ The main idea of the passage is not contradicted at all because the author is clearly talking about the number of youth who are unemployed. There is an underlying suggestion that a number of youth are employed even in the recession and the lucky youth being referred to by the author probably belong to that category. Hence, A and D are correct, but B and E are incorrect. The sentence in question is definitely not a conclusion as it cannot be inferred from the information presented in the preceding sentences. Therefore, B, C and D are incorrect and A and D are the correct answer options.
It can be inferred from the passage that teenagers
- look for jobs with the aim of earning some pocket money
- are not burdened with the responsibility of supporting themselves and their families
- do not fall into the bracket of unemployed youth as outlined by the author in the beginning of the passage
- do not need to look for jobs
- are not content with low paying jobs
Correct Answer: A and B.
A The author mentions that teenagers look for low paying jobs because they are probably just looking for some pocket money to be spent during weekends. Therefore, A is correct, but E is incorrect. However, this does not imply that they do not need any jobs at all. Hence, D is incorrect. There is a clear mention of the fact that many of the 4 million unemployed youth are not teenagers. This means that some of them are teenagers who are unemployed and are looking for jobs even if it means looking for low paying jobs. Slightly older youth need jobs to support themselves and their families and the teenagers are probably free of this responsibility. Therefore, C is clearly incorrect. In view of the above, C, D and E are incorrect and A and B are the correct answers.
In the context in which it has been used, ‘despondency’ is closest in meaning to
Correct Answer: B, C and D
A The author uses the word ‘despondency’ to imply dejection, despair and depression which will be felt by the youth as a result of being unemployed. It is evident that the word despondency has not been used to imply unemployment but it has been used to suggest the state of mind of the youth who will be unemployed due to lack of jobs or suitable education programs. In view of the above, it is obvious that A and E are incorrect and B, C and D are the correct answers.