Reading Comprehension Select Many Practice Test 3


Passage for Questions 1 to 5

Whatever philosophy may be, it is in the world and must relate to it. It breaks through the shell of the world in order to move into the infinite. But it turns back in order to find in the finite its always unique historical foundation. It pushes into the furthest horizons beyond being-in-the-world in order to experience the present in the eternal. But even the profoundest meditation acquires its meaning by relating back to man’s existence here and now. Philosophy glimpses the highest criteria, the starry heaven of the possible, and seeks in the light of the seemingly impossible the way to man’s dignity in the phenomenon of his empirical existence. Philosophy addresses itself to individuals. It creates a free community of those who rely on each other in their will for truth into this community the philosophic man would like to enter. It is there in the world all the time, but cannot become a worldly institution without losing freedom of its truth. He cannot know whether he belongs to it. No authority decides on his acceptance. He wants to live in his thinking in such a way as to make his acceptance possible. But how does the world relate to philosophy? There are chairs of philosophy at the universities. Now-a-days they are an embarrassment. Philosophy is politely respected because of tradition, but despised in secret. The general opinion is: it has nothing of importance to say. Neither has it any practical value. It is named in public but does it really exist?

Question 1

By stating ‘profoundest meditation’, the author implies a form of meditation that is

  1. futile
  2. delusional
  3. thoughtful
  4. intellectual
  5. ineffectual

Correct Answer: C and D

Explanation:

A The word ‘profound’ means the same as intellectual or thoughtful. The author has used the term profoundest meditation to refer to meditation that is most intellectual or thoughtful. This implies that A, B and E are incorrect and C and D are the correct answers.

Question 2

Which of the following has NOT been brought out by the author in relation to philosophy?

  1. It is not present in this world
  2. It hovers between the finite and the infinite
  3. At a personal level, people do not admire it
  4. Most people feel that it has no relevance
  5. People of this world are not able to relate to it at all

Correct Answer: A and E.

Explanation:

A It has been brought out in the beginning of the passage that philosophy is in this world. Therefore, A is a correct answer option to the question asked. The beginning of the passage deals with how philosophy hovers between the finite and infinite and hence, B is an incorrect answer option. The author has clearly brought out that people may respect philosophy due to tradition but they despise it in secret. This implies that C has been brought out in the passage and hence, it is an incorrect answer option. Towards the end of the passage the author has highlighted how people no longer attach a great deal of importance to philosophy and hence, D has been brought out in the passage. Therefore, D is an incorrect answer option. The author has discussed how some people are able to relate to philosophy and they make an endeavour to become a part of related communities by altering their thinking. This implies that E is incorrect as it has not been indicated anywhere in the passage. Therefore, E is a correct answer option and hence, A and E are the correct answers.

Question 3

Which of the following substantiates the statement, ‘Philosophy is politely respected because of tradition, but despised in secret’?

  1. ‘But how does the world relate to philosophy?’
  2. ‘It is named in public but does it really exist?’
  3. ‘Neither has it any practical value’
  4. ‘There are chairs of philosophy at the universities’
  5. ‘The general opinion is: it has nothing of importance to say’

Correct Answer: C and E.

Explanation:

A Towards the end of the passage, the author discusses how philosophy is now respected only out of tradition and it is despised in secret by most people. A is a question that triggers the discussion in the succeeding sentences. It does not substantiate the claim in question and hence, A is incorrect. B is another question directed towards the reader. It is not intended to support the claim in question and hence, B is incorrect. D is merely a fact and this implies that D is incorrect. C and E clearly substantiate the claim in question as they aptly describe the reason behind why philosophy is despised. Hence, it is apparent that C and E are the correct answers.

Question 4

Which of the following conclusions based on the passage are justified?

  1. Most people feel that philosophy does not have any worthwhile significance
  2. Tradition has forced people to change their outlook towards Philosophy
  3. Altering one’s thinking is the only possible way for one to be accepted in the community of philosophers
  4. Everyone respects philosophy wholeheartedly
  5. Chairs of philosophy at the universities should enlighten people about philosophy

Correct Answer: A and C.

Explanation:

A The entire passage deals with philosophy and how people relate to it. The end of the passage deals with how people are no longer in awe of philosophy and hence the conclusion at A is justified and it is a correct answer option. The end of the passage clearly brings out that people respect philosophy out of tradition and they actually despise it in secret. This does not mean that tradition has forced people to change their outlook towards philosophy. On the contrary, people still cling to their beliefs albeit in secret. Hence, the conclusions at B and D are not justified and hence, both B and D are incorrect. C has been brought out in the passage and hence, C is correct. E is clearly incorrect as the responsibilities of the chairs of philosophy ay the universities have not be enumerated or implied anywhere in the passage. In view of the above, it is evident that A and C are the correct answers.

Question 5

The author uses ‘empirical existence’ to refer to the

  1. speculative existence of man
  2. factual existence of man
  3. practical continuance of man
  4. conjectural subsistence of man
  5. existence of man in empires

Correct Answer: B and C.

Explanation:

A The term ‘empirical’ is used to refer to something that is factual or practical. ‘Hypothetical’, ‘speculative’ and ‘conjectural’ are the antonyms of empirical. This makes it obvious that B and C are the correct answer options.

Passage for Questions 6 to 10

Experiences of crowding and space are found in education. To sit in a class where the teacher stuffs our minds with information, organizes it with finality, insists on having the answers while being utterly uninterested in our views, and focus us into a grim competition for grades – to sit in such a class is to experience a lack of space for learning. But to study with a teacher who not only speaks but also listens, who not only answers but asks questions and welcomes our insights, who provides information and theories that do not close doors but open new ones, who encourage students to help each other learn – to study with such a teacher is to know the power of a learning space. A learning space needs to be hospitable not to make learning painless, but to make painful things possible, things without which no learning can occur – things like exposing ignorance, testing tentative hypotheses, challenging false or partial information, and mutual criticism of thought.

Question 6

According to the author, which of the following types of classes is NOT an example of experiencing crowding in the realm of education?

  1. A class with a teacher who does not accept the views of the students
  2. A class with a teacher who emphasizes on securing good grades
  3. A class with students who are free to deviate from what is being taught
  4. A class with students who are encouraged to contemplate upon what they have learnt
  5. A class with students who are unwillingly being overloaded with information

Correct Answer: C and D.

Explanation:

A The beginning of the passage clearly brings out A, B and E as examples wherein one experiences crowding or lack of space in learning. Therefore, A, B and E all are incorrect answer options. C and D are clearly examples of open space in learning as the students can weigh what they have learnt and subsequently come up with questions. Therefore, C and D are not examples of experiencing crowding in the realm of education and hence, C and D are the correct answers.

Question 7

Which of the following best describes a situation in which a class is being taken by a teacher who accepts the opinions of students?

  1. Crowding in education
  2. Open learning space
  3. Hospitable learning space
  4. Hospitable but crowded learning space
  5. Both crowded and open learning space

Correct Answer: B and C.

Explanation:

A A careful reading of the passage brings to light the fact that a teacher who accepts the views of students is one who creates an open learning space that is hospitable as well. It is definitely not an example of crowding in learning as the students are being given the liberty to think and come up with their opinions and queries. Therefore, it is obvious that A, D and E are incorrect and B and C are the correct answers.

Question 8

An ideal learning environment is one that allows

  1. people to confront dubious information
  2. a teacher to impose his viewpoints on the students
  3. people to criticize each other’s thoughts
  4. crowding in learning
  5. students to impose restrictions on teachers

Correct Answer: A and C.

Explanation:

A The author has clearly brought out that space in learning is more desirable as compared to crowding in learning. Therefore, it is evident that an ideal learning environment is one which has space. A and C refer to space in learning and B is an example of crowding in learning. D directly refers to crowding in learning. E is not implied or referred to anywhere in the passage. In view of the above, it is obvious that B, D and E are incorrect and A and C are the correct answers.

Question 9

Why does a learning space need to be hospitable?

  1. In order to make learning a pleasing experience
  2. To facilitate the implementation of things which are otherwise agonizing
  3. To train students how to overcome the fear of doing things that are painful
  4. Learning space cannot exist if it is not hospitable
  5. To curb the tendency of students to criticise each other

Correct Answer: B and C.

Explanation:

A The passage ends on the note that the aim of making learning space hospitable is not to make learning a painless experience; rather making a learning space hospitable will mean that people are free to resort to things like mutual criticism, exposing ignorance, challenging false information etc. which can otherwise be painful things or subjects for discussion. This clearly implies that A and E are incorrect and B and C are correct. D is clearly incorrect as learning space can definitely exist even if it is not hospitable. Therefore, B and C are the correct answers.

Question 10

Which of the following conclusions based on the contents of the passage are justified?

  1. Vying with each other for good grades is the result of a crowded learning space
  2. A crowded learning space is one in which students are apathetic to each other’s grades
  3. The entire process of learning is painful
  4. Studying in a class has parallels with experiences of physical space
  5. The attitude of a teacher is the major deciding factor for making a learning space open or crowded.

Correct Answer: A, D and E.

Explanation:

A It has been clearly brought out in the passage that students are forced into competing with each other for grades in a crowded learning space. This implies that A is correct, but B is incorrect. C is a vague conclusion in light of the fact that nowhere in the passage has the author implied that the entire process of learning is painful. He does mention that some aspects of learning are painful but that does not mean that the entire process of learning can be termed as painful. Therefore, C is clearly incorrect. D is correct as the passage deals with parallels between physical space and spaces in learning. Also, the entire passage deals with how a teacher is instrumental in making a learning space closed or open. Therefore, E is also correct. Hence, A, D and E are the correct answers.

Passage for Questions 11 to 15

Each of our perceptions is accompanied by consciousness that human reality is a ‘revealer’, that is, it is through human reality that ‘there is’ being, or, to put it differently, that man is the means by which things are manifested. It is our presence in the world which multiplies relations. It is we who set up a relationship between this tree and that bit of sky. Thanks to us, that star which has been dead for millennia, that quarter moon, and that dark river are disclosed in the unity of a landscape. It is the speed of our auto and our airplane which organizes the great masses of the earth. With each of our acts, the world reveals to us a new face. But, if we know that we are directors of being, we also know that we are not its producers. If we turn away from this landscape, it will sink back into its dark permanence. It is we who shall be annihilated, and the earth will remain in its lethargy until another consciousness comes along to awaken it. Thus, to our inner certainty of being ‘revealers’ is added that of being inessential in relation to the thing revealed.

Question 11

Which of the following can be implied from the first sentence, “Each of our … things are manifested”?

  1. We are essential for things to exist
  2. We provide the means for producing things
  3. We are responsible for making things appear
  4. We have the power to make things clearer but not create them
  5. We are intelligent beings

Correct Answer: C and D.

Explanation:

A A is incorrect because the meaning being conveyed by A is contradictory to the meaning implied by the first sentence of the passage. The author has used the first sentence of the passage to imply that humans are ‘revealers’. In other words, humans are the means that make things clearer or make them ‘appear’. Therefore, B is incorrect. E is clearly incorrect because there is no direct or indirect reference to the intelligence of man in the first sentence. In view of the above, it is evident that C and D are the correct answers.

Question 12

The claim made by the author, “…we are directors of being…” is supported by which of the following?

  1. “It is we who set up a relationship between this tree and that bit of sky”
  2. “ If we turn away from this landscape, it will sink back into its dark permanence”
  3. “Man is the means by which things are manifested”
  4. “that star which has been dead for millennia”
  5. “we are not its producers”

Correct Answer: A and C.

Explanation:

A The author uses A and C to strengthen his claim that we are directors of being. A emphasises that we are responsible for establishing relationships between things. C is a clear indication of the fact that man is responsible for manifesting things and making them appear to all. B does not directly imply that we are directing or manifesting things. Moreover, B indicates what will happen if we stop being ‘revealers’ and hence, B is incorrect. D and E are clearly incorrect as they are not related to the claim in question at all. Therefore, A and C are the correct answers.

Question 13

Which of the following is true with respect to the sentence, “But, if we know that we are directors of being, we also know that we are not its producers”?

  1. It refutes the core of the issue being discussed in the passage
  2. It is a conclusion based on the information presented in the preceding sentences
  3. It is evidence presented in support of a claim made earlier in the passage
  4. It is a claim which is being substantiated by the arguments following the sentence
  5. It is not contradicted by the facts presented in the following sentences

Correct Answer: D and E.

Explanation:

A A is clearly incorrect as the sentence in question is in consonance with the contents of the passage. The sentence in question is not a conclusion because it cannot be drawn based on the facts presented in the preceding sentences. Therefore, B is incorrect. Moreover, the sentence does not support any of the claims made in the preceding sentences. The given sentence is a claim that is being substantiated by the sentences succeeding it. Therefore, C is incorrect and D and E are the correct answers.

Question 14

Which of the following conclusions based on the contents of the passage are justified?

  1. We are not important as compared to the things being manifested by us.
  2. We are responsible for unravelling the mysteries and faces of nature
  3. We can generate new things which will die down if we ignore them
  4. We have the power to create things
  5. We create the faces of nature

Correct Answer: A and B.

Explanation:

A The passage concludes on the note that although we are ‘revealers’, we are inessential to the things being revealed by us. The entire passage deals with how man is the means for manifesting things or making them appear. The author clearly mentions that we are not ‘producers’ and we do not have the power to create or produce anything. In view of the above, it is evident that C, D and E are incorrect and A and B are the correct answers.

Question 15

It is implied by the author that humans are responsible for

  1. forcing the world to sink into the dark unknown
  2. revealing various faces of nature
  3. consuming whatever nature has to offer
  4. setting up relations between different things in this world
  5. destroying nature

Correct Answer: B and D.

Explanation:

A The author has reiterated time and again in the passage that humans are ‘revealers’ and they are not responsible for creating anything. It has also been brought out we are the means by which things are manifested and the relations between things are established. Therefore, B and D are correct. There is no reference to the fact that humans are responsible for destroying nature or consuming the things present in nature. Therefore, C and E are clearly incorrect. The author mentions that if we turn away from the landscape, it will sink back to its dark permanence; this does not mean that we are forcing the world to sink into the dark unknown and hence, A is incorrect. In view of the above, it is evident that B and D are the correct answers.